Session Title: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) including Non-Cognitive Aspects
Presentation Date: Friday, March 14 – Saturday, March 15, 2009
SPORADIC EARLY-ONSET ALZHEIMER´S DISEASE
R. Pedrosa1, V. Teixeira-Sousa1, S. Fonseca1, C. Costa1, D. Maia1, L. Moura1, M. Viana1, R. Curral1, A.J. Bastos-Leite2, A. Roma-Torres1
1Hospital de São João, Department of Psychiatry, Oporto, Portugal, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Oporto, Department of Medical Imaging, Oporto, Portugal
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at an early age of onset may be challenging because it is a relatively rare occurrence and the associated cognitive deficits can be other than memory impairment. In addition, the diagnosis of such a type of dementia may be even more difficult when concomitant depression occurs.
This is a case report of a 51-year-old woman with depressive symptoms, approximately for two years, cognitive deficits. The patient was under long-term antidepressant therapy. Despite the improvement of depressive symptoms, there was progressive cognitive deterioration.
The clinical examination revealed cognitive deficits in several domains, mostly visuospatial impairment, apraxia and minor memory loss. In the Mini-Mental State Examination, the patient scored 12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed abnormalities that were suggestive of sporadic early-onset Alzheimer´s disease.
The differential diagnosis between pseudementia and dementia is a demanding task. This clinical case report illustrates the coexistence of dementia with an early-onset and depressive symptoms. Imaging findings supported the clinical diagnosis of dementia and were crucial for identifying a pattern of brain atrophy and hypoperfusion very suggestive of early-onset AD.